NEXES at TESS 2017

NEXES Receives Positive Feedback To the Results of the Exercise with the Turkish Emergency Services

Represented by the Ambulance and Emergency Physicians Association (AAHD), the NEXES Consortium joined more than the 250 participants at the TESS 2017, a Symposium dedicated to the novel technologies for medical emergency simulation, held in Bursa on 5th – 6th May 2017.

AAHD made a thorough presentation of the new capabilities brought by NEXES and deemed relevant by the Turkish emergency services to enhance their performance and results and delivered a poster presentation focused on the results of the NEXES Exercise with the Turkish Emergency Services, which occurred in March 2017. The NEXES’s advanced capabilities on communications, location information and the exchange of user data, namely medical information, was very praised by the Symposium participants. These were also surprised by the NEXES’s capabilities to enable emergency operators to share relevant instructions or guidance and support the assistance to the victim, before the arrival of the first responder team onsite.

 

NEXES’s dissemination at TESS 2017 is part of the focused communication campaign of the NEXES RIA, aiming to build awareness to the NEXES results and accomplishments and to the revolutionary potential NEXES’ novel capabilities bring to the emergency services field.

NEXES Pilot in Slovenia

On April 11th 2017, the University of Ljubljana (UL) organised the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia focused on the demonstration of the NEXES System and its innovative capabilities to assist emergency services to adopt advanced information and communications technologies and become next generation emergency services, providing a more efficient and effective emergency response to the benefit of the society.

The objective of the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia was to demonstrate the use of novel communication capabilities between citizens and emergency services and to identify opportunities for improvement of the NEXES System and Apps as key highlights of the NEXES reference implementation of next generation emergency services.

In order to prepare the NEXES Pilot activities in Slovenia, a large-scale emergency scenario relevant for the Slovenian end-users was created, based on the NEXES Reference Scenario 4 – Natural Disaster. The scenario presented inherent flexibility to be deconstructed in different five supporting storylines aiming at demonstrating the different innovations and novel capabilities developed in NEXES. Aside from highlighting the breadth of NEXES’s functionality and its potential application up to a large-scale emergency or crisis, the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia aimed to demonstrate the NEXES’s capacity to greatly enhance not only public access to emergency services, but also the quality of information exchanged between citizens and emergency services. Moreover, it also suggests NEXES’s potential to bolster public confidence in the emergency response process due to increased reach alternatives and the provision of information or instructions by the PSAP operator. In addition, the scenario also addresses potential problems that could arise from the enhanced reach afforded by the NEXES App, in particular the potential for a greater volume of non-emergency calls, and the greater demand and pressure exerted on PSAP and emergency services call-takers, due to the increased capacity afforded by IP communications.

Overall, the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia was carefully designed to showcase important features within NEXES, among them:

  • Advanced location: showing multiple locations to better pinpoint the caller’s position;
  • Multi-party chat communication: to aid citizens with deafness or hearing disability;
  • Multi-party video communication: to aid citizens with deafness or hearing disability and to be able to provide live recordings of events on the emergency site;
  • Medical data transfer;
  • Media (picture, video) upload to the PSAP system;
  • Surveys for non-emergency calls;
  • International roaming of emergency calls using the PESEA specifications;
  • Cross-PSAP data sharing;
  • Cross-PSAP chat communication;
  • Cross-PSAP video communication.

 

To enable the above-referred functionality, the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia developed a full end-to-end emergency service using specific NEXES components that were thus validated by independent, external end-users:

  • The pan-European NEXES App for citizens, enabling total conversation capabilities and the exchange of additional user data;
  • The NEXES PESEA-based network components;
  • The NEXES Next Generation Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) System, as the ecosystem supporting next generation call handling and additional data exchange capabilities;
  • The NEXES Emergency Response Organisations dashboard.

The NEXES Pilot in Slovenia comprised actual role-playing activities, with participants giving life to the five storylines and interacting with the NEXES System and App. The Pilot demonstration was set-up in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering’s lobby, in a clearly demarcated area with controlled access identified as “NEXES PILOT AREA”. At the Pilot site, six working posts (consoles) were set up to mimic the Slovenian emergency services, representing PSAP operators, an intervention supervisor and an interpreter:

  • The 112 PSAP operator, serving as the first call-taker for all incoming emergency calls;
  • The Police PSAP, serving as a second-level PSAP for storyline 3;
  • The Fire service PSAP, serving as a second-level PSAP for storylines 1, 2 and 4;
  • The Ambulance service PSAP, serving as a second-level PSAP for storylines 2 and 5;
  • The Interpretation service for sign language interpretation in storyline 4;
  • The 3rd level Fire service Intervention Supervisor for storyline 1.

The actual NEXES Pilot execution was structured so as to have every storyline initially presented to the participants in a step-by-step presentation, with the trained members of the University of Ljubljana team running one scenario storyline and presenting the procedure live of the NEXES System. Individual participants were then invited to partake and try out the individual scenario storylines. The goal was to make participants at ease and avoid any difficulties interacting with the technology; it also helped to introduce the novelties of the NEXES System and Apps.

The 30 participants in the Pilot were divided into two groups, one comprised of emergency services’ professionals and the other comprised of citizens, including deaf citizens. Each group displayed interest in different NEXES’s features: the emergency services were particularly interested in the location feature and the opportunity to receive additional information from the caller, whereas the citizens were keen to experiment the different communication channels enabling audio, video and chat conversation and the upload of pictures and videos. Overall, the interaction between the end-users community and the NEXES development team during the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia proved to be a fruitful method of discussing relevant issues, understanding details on the end-users’ operational needs and requirements and improving the NEXES System and Apps to provide effective next generation emergency service.

Emergency service professionals participating in the Pilot confirmed that:

  • NEXES advances the current capabilities in handling and responding to emergency reports (situations);
  • Chat messaging is considered a relevant feature;
  • Video calls are understood as highly relevant tools to assist in emergency response;
  • Pictures/image upload is perceived as relevant to improve the operator’s situational awareness;
  • International call routing (roaming) capability is considered a valuable feature but with limited application (low number of emergency calls from tourists in Slovenia);
  • Improved location is deemed highly relevant to advance emergency response;
  • There are risks requiring careful analysis, namely those related with the protection of sensitive personal data and the overload of information incurred by PSAP operators, particularly when accessing disturbing images or videos.

Citizens, including those experiencing deafness or hearing impairment, participating in the Pilot confirmed that:

  • NEXES advances the current capabilities for citizens contacting and communicating with emergency services;
  • Chat messaging is a relevant feature in the new channels to reach emergency services;
  • Video calls, particularly for speech impairment or deaf citizens, are very important when contacting emergency services;
  • Pictures/image transfer highly improves on current capabilities for contacting and communicating with emergency services;
  • International call routing (roaming) capability is a valuable feature to assist emergency response;
  • Improved location is a relevant capability to support emergency services;
  • There are risks concerning the citizens’ right to privacy that need to be considered (emergency services must guarantee the protection of sensitive personal data).

Representatives of the deaf community, in particular, have expressed a high level of approval of NEXES advanced functionalities displayed in the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia. All signalled the relevance of having multiple channels to rapidly reach emergency services and to exchange additional information (photos, videos). More importantly, they highlighted the support provided by sign language interpretation. A specific remark was made to the opportunity now delivered by NEXES to see the PSAP operator’s face, as a reassurance that help is on the way.

The results prove the importance of the advanced capabilities provided by NEXES to build improved emergency services with respect to end-to-end rich multimedia communication, location accuracy and international roaming capabilities. The results also show the relevance of involving emergency services professionals and citizens, including those experiencing disability or special needs, as new systems are developed and tested so that their validation is thorough in terms of the impact in the services’ operations and the citizens’ perception of safety, well-being and quality of life.

The impact of the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia has been highly positive. Especially, it is important to establish relationships and alliances with relevant national and European authorities, which have significant influence on the path towards harmonised regulation and standardisation involving next generation capabilities for emergency services.

One important lesson learned from the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia is also that the communication materials used, serving to present the pilot activities and the technologies at hand, are very useful to dissipate any initial resistance or doubt with respect to the participant’s ability to perform as expected. The participants in the Pilot revealed no difficulty or disorientation in the use of the NEXES System or App. The NEXES Consortium will continue to invest in the ability to capture a friendly, easy-to-use interface, capable of establishing enhanced interactive opportunities and kept updated with the latest capabilities integrated into the NEXES System and Apps.

Overall, the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia pointed out that there is a general awareness of the need for changes in the traditional methods of contacting and communicating with emergency services, namely through the integration of new IP-enabled communications and information technologies that bring richer communication channels implementing the total conversation paradigm, improved location information for faster and more accurate identification of the caller’s location and enhanced interoperability amongst the different emergency services required to provide the right emergency response. The NEXES results successfully demonstrated in the Pilot have exhibited a great potential in raising the end-users community’s interest in this topic, with a positive impact on their understanding of the NEXES benefits and effects to society.

Indeed, the interest in the development of next generation emergency services across Europe is big and relevant stakeholders expect more information about its implementation, the potential promising technologies and the expected benefits for the country and the society. The challenge embraced by NEXES to become the first reference implementation of an end-to-end next generation emergency service requires the commitment of all groups of stakeholders and the organisation of well-structured activities, such as the NEXES pilot demonstrations, to ensure that those stakeholders’ expectations are met and to build trust, credibility and social acceptance of the new functionalities as key enablers to the transformation of emergency services across Europe.

Enjoy the video produced by SPLETNA TV.

Spletna TV je bila na predstavitvi pilotnega projekta NEXES, ki ga delajo tudi za gluhe. Uporaben bo za vse klice v sili (nesreče, naravne katastrofe, požari in podobno). S klicnim centrom pa se boste lahko povezali s pomočjo videoklica. Predstavitve so se udeležili tudi predstavniki ZDGNS, ki so program preizkusili in razvijalcem zaupali, kje je še prostor za izboljšave. Kaj jim je bilo všeč in kaj bi izboljšali, izveste kmalu na Spletni TV.

Posted by Spletna TV on Thursday, April 13, 2017

 

And a lot of media buzz:

NEXES Announces A Highly Successful Pilot in Slovenia

The End of Iteration One Brings Forth New Capabilities for Next Generation Emergency Services

The NEXES Consortium announces today that it has conducted a highly successful Pilot in Slovenia, marking the end of the project’s Iteration One and demonstrating the first reference implementation of an end-to-end next generation emergency service.

Before an audience of representatives from the Slovenian public authorities, safety organisations and civil society, the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia demonstrated the use of the pan-European NEXES 112 App and the support ecosystem that provides data call capability and device data exchange in various and rich forms between citizens and emergency services, extending the traditional voice and SMS capabilities. Participants interacted with the NEXES System and highlighted the benefits and challenges of the enhanced location information, combining location data from mobile terminals and mobile network, of the video calls and chat messaging functionalities and of the exchange of enriched caller information, including the personal data, video and photographs the caller is willing to share.

The NEXES Pilot in Slovenia resulted in interesting observations and statements, with the open discussion conducted the following morning with the participants to be lively thought-provoking and inspiring. The NEXES Pilot served an opportunity to exchange opinions and views on the state of emergency services, the involvement of the public in emergency situations, the promising new technologies and the status of regulation on emergency communications and personal data access and exchange. It highlighted gaps in technology, information deficiencies and regulations amongst the different emergency response organisations and showed good practices and future trends to be followed.

“By empowering citizens and emergency services with Internet-enabled technologies and digital skills, NEXES is giving them a way to bolster the citizens’ involvement in the process and generate a better situational awareness for emergency operators to create a faster and more effective emergency response.”, said Mr. Marco Manso, the Director of Innovation at RINICOM UK and Coordinator of the NEXES RIA. “Key NEXES Pilot outcomes are increased knowledge for the end-user community, shift in the citizens’ and emergency services’ awareness on how to contribute to society’s improved safety and security, with responsibility and attention to privacy concerns. The users participating in the Pilot showed a positive attitude towards the change announced by NEXES. With the success of its first project iteration, NEXES partners are confident they will attain the reach and impact envisaged for NEXES.”.

NEXES Results Reach Emergency Services Worldwide

NEXES Presented to 650 Delegates at the EENA Conference 2017

The NEXES partners delivered a presentation on the NEXES results to the representatives of emergency services, public authorities, researchers and industry attending the EENA Conference 2017, held from April 5th to 8th 2017 in Budapest, Hungary.

Ministered by AAHD, Omnitor and Deveryware, the presentation focused on the excellent results attained by NEXES with respect to the establishment of an end-to-end next generation emergency service delivering total conversation, improved location and the exchange of additional user information, namely health information. Similarly, the presentation highlighted the relevant work developed by NEXES with respect to standards and its contribution to Europe’s standardisation effort on emergency communications and information sharing. In addition, NEXES partners announced that NEXES would be conducting its first pilot activity in Slovenia on April 11th 2017, validating the new capabilities jointly with the NEXES end-user community, as well as organising the workshop for the first edition of the NEXES App Challenge in Greece on May 30th 2017.

NEXES’s participation in this emergency-related international event is part of the planned dissemination and communication activities defined by the NEXES partners to promote European research initiatives in the security and emergency fields of expertise, namely the NEXES research action and its associated results, bound to deliver a revolutionary impact in the transformation of emergency services worldwide.

NEXES Holds the First Pilot To Showcase New Capabilities for Emergency Services

The Focus Is on Total Conversation, Location and Interoperability

The NEXES Consortium will be hosting the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia on April 11th 2017 at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering Facilities of the University of Ljubljana, in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Included in the NEXES Iteration One Workshop, this Pilot signals the end of the NEXES RIA’s Iteration One effort, completing the set of demonstrations and user validation activities pertaining to the NEXES Campaigns of Demonstration of Iteration One. The Pilot in Slovenia aims to introduce the NEXES’s capabilities for total conversation, enhanced location and the exchange of additional user data of the NEXES 112 App and the NEXES PSAP System to relevant stakeholders, including Slovenian public safety organisations, the Ljubljana municipality and the Slovenian Association of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

Representing the first validation with independent end-users of the whole end-to-end functionality of the NEXES System and Apps, the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia will assess NEXES’s performance as well as its potential impact and even determine future avenues for the next project iteration.

If you wish to join us at the NEXES Pilot in Slovenia and the NEXES Iteration One Workshop, please email us at coordinator@nexes.eu.

NEXES Exercise with the Turkish Emergency Services

On March 17th 2017, AAHD organised a NEXES exercise involving forty-three representatives of eighteen organisations that are relevant stakeholders within the Turkish emergency service and members of the NEXES end-users community: the Izmir Ambulance Service, the Izmir Fire Department, the Izmir Police Department, the Izmir Metro, the Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics Association, the Izmir North Public Hospitals Union, the Aegean Young Businessmen Association, the Turkish Radio Amateurs Association, the Urla Training and Simulation Centre, the Dokuz Eylul University Distant Learning and Practice Centre, the Prevention of Communicable Diseases Association, the TUPRAS Izmir Refinery, the Paramedic School of the Izmir Economics University, the Izmir Provincial Health Directory, the Izmir Disaster and Emergency Management Directory, the Izmir Governor Crisis Centre, the Izmir 112 Single Number Directory and the Izmir Municipality IT Department. Each representative has extensive expertise and experience in the fields of emergency preparedness, response and recovery.

Intending to highlight the differences between the existing Turkish command control centre for emergencies and the new features proposed by NEXES, the Exercise considered two different NEXES Reference Scenarios, one involving a traffic collision and another exploiting a sudden medical incident, namely a cardiac arrest. The first scenario aimed to explore accessibility features, communication difficulties and location capabilities, whereas the second scenario focused on the PSAP operators’ situational awareness and the delivery of medical instructions prior to the arrival onsite of first responders. To best capture the involved participants’ attention and feedback, the exercise combined a table-top approach and a live simulation.

After the unfolding of the exercise, participants enthusiastically shared their views and opinions on the new capabilities brought by NEXES. From the emergency service professionals’ perspective, NEXES comprises valuable new communication channels for citizens to reach emergency services and provides added features that facilitates the PSAP operator to become fully aware of the whole emergency situation and decide on the adequate assets to dispatch. The Turkish representatives were very impressed with NEXES’s video ability, enabling scene management before the arrival of First Responders, significantly improving the timing of emergency management, namely in situations of mass casualty incidents. Similarly, PSAP operators were very interested in the possibility to receive the victim’s medical history and combine it with the data retrieved from personal health apps. Through the NEXES App, it was also recognised the benefits of providing instructions to the caller on how to proceed or act, even correcting inadequate interventions by bystanders, thus allowing first aid interventions to start earlier on scene. There was a general acknowledgment of the positive impact that NEXES might exert on the increase of survival rates.

As far as the concerns expressed by the Turkish emergency professionals, the highlight is placed on the need for additional resources to handle the new information sources. The NEXES’s reliance on smartphones and new Internet-based technologies also raises concern with respect to the population’s ability to own and use these technologies. To address these concerns, it was suggested that emergency services need to review emergency procedures to accommodate the new technologies and determine the need for additional human resources in the PSAP centre. It was also suggested that public authorities and emergency services develop a large communication campaign to raising citizen’s awareness to the NEXES App, explaining how citizens should use and benefit from the App, as part of the public training for emergencies.

Concerning specific new features on the NEXES App, the emergency responders believe to be relevant the enabling of the option to easily reverse the camera’s direction, the inclusion of an icon to indicate at all times the battery situation and the level of Internet connectivity and the pre-definition of the different languages supported by the App. NEXES’s ambition to empower emergency calls from laptops, tablets and computers is also highly praised, and it is suggested to also enable the NEXES App to run on smart televisions. The Turkish emergency services professionals have volunteered to test NEXES in a mass causality incident environment.

With respect to the observations made by the citizens participating in the NEXES exercise, they mostly underline the recognition of the benefits of the NEXES’s total conversation capabilities and the improved accessibility of deaf and blind citizens to emergency services. It is also stressed the NEXES’s relevant contribution to a faster response by first responder teams, while enabling the delivery of necessary instructions to bystanders. It was also agreed that the NEXES user interface was very simple, intuitive and easy to use, therefore highly suitable for the distress and panic felt in emergency situations.

The major concerns were focused on the NEXES’s ability to deliver improved location information in multi-floor buildings and the NEXES App disconnect button, with a single pressure terminating the App. Because this may prompt accidental disconnections, it is suggested to add a message clarifying if the user wants to discontinue the NEXES App with a Yes/No option. Other propositions refer to the possibility of PSAP operators retrieving automatically the phone’s location information. Specifically on the NEXES App, the participants recommended that an enter button is included in the message feature (reassuring the message has been sent), the possibility to enlarge the text font, the addition of information notes and instructive videos to be provided by emergency services to the caller (also contributing to enhance the public emergency training).

The feedback gathered from the NEXES Exercise with the Turkish Emergency Services is instrumental to continue the innovative development work in the project concerning the NEXES App for citizens and of the next generation PSAP systems.

Two videos presented below were produced by AAHD.

  • The video below demonstrates how NEXES can improve emergency response in case of a citizen suffering from speech impairment.

  • The video below demonstrates how NEXES can improve emergency response in case of a citizen suffering from a cardiac arrest.

AAHD Hosts a NEXES Exercise with the Turkish Emergency Services

NEXES Advances in Interaction with Citizens Are Highly Praised

AAHD organised a NEXES Exercise to demonstrate the NEXES results in improving the communication dynamics between emergency services and citizens to relevant Turkish stakeholders in the emergency sector. Conducted on March 17th 2017, at AAHD facilities, the Exercise gathered forty-three representatives of eighteen organisations with extensive expertise and experience in the fields of emergency preparedness, response and recovery.

The NEXES Exercise used two fictional emergency scenarios to illustrate the differences between the existing capabilities of the Turkish command control centre for emergencies and the new features proposed by NEXES. AAHD presented to the participants the new capabilities brought by the NEXES App and the NEXES PSAP system, focusing on the implementation of total conversation, the delivery of enhanced location information to emergency services and the opportunity for providing medical information to the emergency centre.

The participants in the NEXES Exercise were highly interested in the next generation improvements proposed by NEXES, and highlighted the potential to improve the interaction between emergency services and citizens, namely concerning the enhanced situational awareness, the opportunity to offer instructions and information until the arrival of first responders and the contribution to public emergency training. Indeed, AAHD was able to collect relevant feedback from the perspectives of the emergency service professionals and the citizens. The NEXES Consortium and the Turkish stakeholders, which are all members of the NEXES end-user community, will continue to work together in NEXES to contribute to the excellence of the Turkish emergency services.

NEXES Stars At the XXV Forum of 112 Services in Spain

Addressing the Relevance of PESEA for the Next Generation Emergency Services

The NEXES Consortium was invited to present the novel propositions for a next generation emergency service to the 112 regional directors across Spain, gathered to discuss the latest innovations, regulation and standards applicable to the emergency sector at the XXV Foro Nacional de Directores Y Responsables De Centros 112 De Comunidades Autónomas De España, hosted by the autonomous city of Ceuta, from March 8th to 10th 2017, in Spain.

The XXV National Forum for 112 Emergency Centres became familiar with the NEXES’s propositions on the Pan-European Specifications for Emergency Applications (PESEA) and the use of the PEMEA architecture to enable citizens using the NEXES App or any NEXES-compliant emergency App to reach emergency services anywhere in Europe, providing their precise location and additional personal information, including health information and in case of emergency contacts, while meeting the relevant requirements on functionality, cost, security and privacy. This technical meeting also enabled a broad discussion on emergency Apps and the benefits of automated emergency calls, including the use of the next generation eCall system, all issues currently tackled by the NEXES endeavour.

This event served the opportunity to disseminate the NEXES results before an audience of emergency stakeholders that are part of the NEXES end-users community, thus contributing to widen the scope of NEXES’s communication activities and promote additional societal impact as the NEXES results become known across the European emergency services.

 

The two videos below (in English and Spanish respectively) demonstrate the NEXES PESEA implementation in action.

 

 

NEXES App Challenge Starts NOW !!

NEXES APP CHAL_FINALPNG

Dear friend,

Have you ever had a good idea for a Next Generation Emergency response 112 app or think of creating a novel smart app that could change the way we deal with emergency situations and life risks?

If you are a developer, an Emergency Service application owner or an Emergency Service end user who is interested in developing a Next Generation Emergency response application or promote a novel idea for a future application in this field based on your experience (development skills are not really required), come and join us at the NEXES App Challenge!

 

a brief ID for your consideration:

Who | Developers, designers, entrepreneurs and students across Europe that have 112 Apps or want to experiment with Java development, SIP, WebRTC, smart mobile apps as well as end users that want to submit an innovative idea without a prototype implementation in place
What | a 2-month challenge for Next Generation 112 Apps
When | Launching on Monday, March 6th – Expiration on Friday, May 14th, 2017
Where | @your desktop – across Europe. A dedicated Workshop will be held in Athens, Greece at the end of May, 2017
Why | To improve the way citizens interact with emergency services
How | Be inspired by NEXES App specification | Submit your application/idea!

For more information, visit the NEXES App Challenge official site at:

http://nexesappchallenge.eu/

challenge

NEXES Presents Cutting Edge Research Work at SENSORNETS 2017

The Relevance of Sensors’ Ubiquity for Next Generation Emergency Services

The NEXES research promising results were presented during a dedicated European Projects Space session at the SENSORNETS Conference 2017, dedicated to sensor networks, information systems security and privacy, model-driven engineering and software development, and held on February 19th – 21st 2017, in Porto, Portugal.

Represented by Marco Manso (RIN), the NEXES Consortium introduced the new and emerging ideas fostered by NEXES on the integration of automated emergency calls within next generation emergency services, prompted by the dissemination of smart sensor technology and sensing networks. The new automated emergency calls build-up on the existing eCall initiative and widen its scope of application to consider next generation eCall, environmental sensors and eHealth applications. The triggering of alerts enabled by sensors and sensing networks are considered as relevant information sources to early identify an emergency situation, when time is of the essence to save lives. Also the additional information made available by the sensors to emergency services, namely the First Responders teams, is bound to greatly improve the situational awareness of the emergency, thus allowing a more fitted selection of available resources for the emergency response, avoiding unnecessary costs.

Before an academic audience, NEXES efforts to promote the development and integration of next generation automation capabilities to support more efficient and effective emergency services highlighted the innovation mark associated with EU co-funded research initiatives and their impact in advancing the state-of-the-art of emergency communications for society’s benefit.